Recent Publications of BIIC Members

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The IRE1α-XBP1 Pathway Positively Regulates Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)/PTH-related Peptide Receptor Expression and Is Involved in PTH-induced Osteoclastogenesis.

Fri, 02/15/2013 - 08:47
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The IRE1α-XBP1 Pathway Positively Regulates Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)/PTH-related Peptide Receptor Expression and Is Involved in PTH-induced Osteoclastogenesis.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Jan 18;288(3):1691-5

Authors: Tohmonda T, Yoda M, Mizuochi H, Morioka H, Matsumoto M, Urano F, Toyama Y, Horiuchi K

Abstract
To address the "endoplasmic reticulum stress" triggered by the burden of protein synthesis, the unfolded protein response is induced during osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we show that the transcription of parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R) is regulated by one of the endoplasmic reticulum-stress mediators, the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway, in osteoblasts. We found that the increase in Pth1r transcription upon BMP2 treatment is significantly suppressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking IRE1α. As expected, gene silencing of Ire1α and Xbp1 resulted in a decrease in Pth1r transcripts in BMP2-treated embryonic fibroblasts. We identified two potential binding sites for XBP1 in the promoter region of Pth1r and found that XBP1 promotes the transcription of Pth1r by directly binding to those sites. Moreover, we confirmed that the gene silencing of Xbp1 suppresses PTH-induced Rankl expression in primary osteoblasts and thereby abolishes osteoclast formation in an in vitro model of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, the present study reveals potential involvement of the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway in PTH-induced osteoclastogenesis through the regulation of PTH1R expression.

PMID: 23235147 [PubMed - in process]

Core-Shell Hydrogel Microcapsules for Improved Islets Encapsulation.

Fri, 02/15/2013 - 08:47
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Core-Shell Hydrogel Microcapsules for Improved Islets Encapsulation.

Adv Healthc Mater. 2012 Dec 3;

Authors: Ma M, Chiu A, Sahay G, Doloff JC, Dholakia N, Thakrar R, Cohen J, Vegas A, Chen D, Bratlie KM, Dang T, York RL, Hollister-Lock J, Weir GC, Anderson DG

Abstract
Islets microencapsulation holds great promise to treat type 1 diabetes. Currently used alginate microcapsules often have islets protruding outside capsules, leading to inadequate immuno-protection. A novel design of microcapsules with core-shell structures using a two-fluid co-axial electro-jetting is reported. Improved encapsulation and diabetes correction is achieved in a single step by simply confining the islets in the core region of the capsules.

PMID: 23208618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Synthesis, Characterization and Pharmacodynamics of Vitamin-B(12) -Conjugated Glucagon-Like Peptide-1.

Fri, 02/15/2013 - 08:47
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Synthesis, Characterization and Pharmacodynamics of Vitamin-B(12) -Conjugated Glucagon-Like Peptide-1.

ChemMedChem. 2012 Nov 30;

Authors: Clardy-James S, Chepurny OG, Leech CA, Holz GG, Doyle RP

Abstract
Clearing the way: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are proving a potent weapon in the treatment of type II diabetes. A new vitamin B(12) -GLP-1 conjugate is investigated and shown to have insulinotropic properties similar to the unmodified peptide. These results are critical to the exploitation of the vitamin B(12) oral uptake pathway for peptide delivery.

PMID: 23203941 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Concise review: pancreas regeneration: recent advances and perspectives.

Fri, 02/15/2013 - 08:47
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Concise review: pancreas regeneration: recent advances and perspectives.

Stem Cells Transl Med. 2012 Feb;1(2):150-9

Authors: Lysy PA, Weir GC, Bonner-Weir S

Abstract
The replacement of functional pancreatic β-cells is seen as an attractive potential therapy for diabetes, because diabetes results from an inadequate β-cell mass. Inducing replication of the remaining β-cells and new islet formation from progenitors within the pancreas (neogenesis) are the most direct ways to increase the β-cell mass. Stimulation of both replication and neogenesis have been reported in rodents, but their clinical significance must still be shown. Because human islet transplantation is limited by the scarcity of donors and graft failure within a few years, efforts have recently concentrated on the use of stem cells to replace the deficient β-cells. Currently, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells achieve high levels of β-cell differentiation, but their clinical use is still hampered by ethical issues and/or the risk of developing tumors after transplantation. Pancreatic epithelial cells (duct, acinar, or α-cells) represent an appealing alternative to stem cells because they demonstrate β-cell differentiation capacities. Yet translation of such capacity to human cells after significant in vitro expansion has yet to be achieved. Besides providing new β-cells, cell therapy also has to address the question on how to protect the transplanted cells from destruction by the immune system via either allo- or autoimmunity. Encouraging developments have been made in encapsulation and immunomodulation techniques, but many challenges still remain. Herein, we discuss recent advances in the search for β-cell replacement therapies, current strategies for circumventing the immune system, and mandatory steps for new techniques to be translated from bench to clinics.

PMID: 23197762 [PubMed - in process]

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